CARTA DE OPINIÓN: Mortalidad masiva de murciélagos en parques eólicos de España
Comisión sobre murciélagos y parques eólicos
La adopción de actuaciones decididamente encaminadas a paliar y no agravar aún más las consecuencias del cambio climático en el que ya estamos inmersos es ineludible. En este sentido el posicionamiento de la SECEMU en relación con la necesidad de promover, desarrollar y optimizar sistemas de aprovechamiento energético sin emisiones asociadas es muy claro y absolutamente favorable. Sin embargo, los sistemas han de ser respetuosos con el medio ambiente que les rodea si pretenden ostentar el calificativo de “energía limpia”. Y no se puede olvidar que la producción energética no es un servicio público, sino un negocio que mueve inversiones mil millonarias (se prevén en España entre 80 y 100 mil millones de euros en los próximos años, según la Asociación de Empresas de Energías Renovables – EFE 2018) y genera importantes beneficios…
Influence of bat house design on hibernating bats – a case study in Herefordshire (UK)
Nick C. Downs, David Wells
Abstract: In England, bats and their roosts are protected by national legislation. To permit development actions that would otherwise result in an offence relating to bats, it is first necessary to obtain a protected species mitigation licence containing protective measures. Due to the complexity of the topic, combined with the fact that monitoring is often limited, it can be difficult for practitioners to be certain of real conservation benefits of these measures. To build a new access road near Hereford (UK), a former artillery magazine (confirmed bat roost) building was demolished. Therefore, a legally binding English Nature/Natural England European Protected Species (EPS) Development Licence was obtained (2005). This licence stipulated mitigation and compensation measures to ensure the works could be carried out without harming bats and ensuring their favourable conservation status was maintained. Roost compensation measures were applied to two identical retained buildings. These included blocking doorways, provision of bat access grilles/internal roosting crevices, diverting downpipes inside, and installing straw matting (approx. 5cm deep, within one building only). The latter two measures were designed to increase internal humidity levels. Pre-compensation monitoring recorded two hibernating common pipistrelles in addition to lesser horseshoe and brown long-eared bat droppings. Post-compensation monitoring (2006-2016) recorded a minimum of three brown long-eared bats, three lesser horseshoe bats, one common pipistrelle and one barbastelle, suggesting the compensation methods may have increased both the numbers of species, and individual bats. These increases were small, hence not conclusive. Notably, during the post-compensation hibernation monitoring, brown long-eared bats were found in areas with lower humidity levels (48.6-78.8%) than lesser horseshoe bats (67.8-93.5%). The magazine containing straw matting had winter humidity levels approximately 20% higher than the other and supported a higher number of hibernating lesser horseshoe bats, but a lower number of hibernating brown long-eared bats. Within both buildings, all hibernating brown long-eared bats were found behind chipboard (approx. 70cm x 150cm) attached to wooden battens approx. 2cm from the internal walls rather than wooden or sawdust/ cement composite bat boxes.
New species records from Buton Island, South East Sulawesi, including regional range extensions
Melissa Donnelly, Thomas E. Martin, Olivia Cropper, Ellena Yusti, Arthur Arfian, Rachael Smethurst, Catherine Fox, Moira Pryde, Hafirun, Josh Phangurha, Rianne N. van der Aar, Amy Hutchison, Ady Karya, Kangkuso Analuddin, Samsudin, Stephanie K. Courtney Jones
Abstract: Peninsular Malaysia is currently thought to host the highest biodiversity of Old World bats of any region, with 110 species recorded. However, the availability of literature to facilitate a similarly thorough species ‘checklist’ is not as readily available for other parts of Southeast Asia, including Sulawesi, Indonesia. Here we highlight 13 new species records from the long-term bat monitoring programme on Buton Island, South East Sulawesi, expanding on Patterson et al.’s (2017) previous inventory for this study area. One species (Hipposideros galeritus) is a new record for Sulawesi, and seven species (Cynopterus c.f. minutus, Rousettus celebensis, Megaderma spasma, Hipposideros c.f. ater, Myotis c.f. horsfieldii, Myotis c.f. moluccarum, and Myotis c.f. muricola) are new records for Buton Island. The remaining five species (Thoopterus nigrescens, Dobsonia exoleta, Acerodon celebensis, Mosia nigrescens, and Mops sarasinorum) have been previously reported from Buton but were missing from the prior site inventory. We also correct a probable mistaken species identification in the previous inventory (Cynopterus cf. titthaecheilus, now identified as Thoopterus nigrescens). This brings the total of confirmed species detected on Buton to 35, equating to 46.7% of all Sulawesi’s known bat diversity in c. 3% of its land area. We highlight Buton as a key area for conserving the region’s bat species.
Karyotype of Myotis lavali (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae)
Brunna Almeida, Roberto Leonan M. Novaes, Ricardo Moratelli, Júlia Lins Luz, Luciana M. Costa, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa Esbérard, Lena Geise
Abstract: Myotis lavali is an insectivorous bat that occurs along the South American Dry Diagonal, extending from the Brazilian Caatinga southward to Paraguayan Alto Chaco. This species was described recently and there is little information about its biology. Herein, we describe the conventional karyotype from three males captured in an arboreal savanna from Vale do Jequitinhonha, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The diploid number (2n) and the fundamental number of autosomes (FNa) were 44 and 50, respectively. Its karyotype, in Giemsa staining, is similar to others described for Neotropical Myotis, and it is not useful to identify specimens.
First report of intraspecific variation in wing translucency for a Neotropical bat
Hernani F. M. Oliveira, Sandra L. Peters, Russell J. Gray, Roberto Leonan M. Novaes
Abstract: Although most variation regarding bat colouration has been recorded for fur, there have also been a few bat species for which intraspecific variation in wing translucency has been reported. However, all records are from the Paleotropics, with no cases reported for any bat species in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first case of intraspecific variation in wing translucency for a Neotropical bat species, the lesser ghost bat (Diclidurus scutatus). Two individuals captured hundreds of kilometres away from each other in the Brazilian Amazon forest showed distinct patterns in relation to the degree of their wing translucency. While one individual in the Northeastern Amazon forest had fully translucent wings, the other in the Southern Amazon had whitish opaque wings. We propose three hypotheses to explain this variation, which are related to differences in: (1) light conditions and camouflage in the roost; (2) thermoregulation requirements; and (3) habitat structure relationship with hunting success.
A scale for quantifying behavior based on aggressiveness in bats
Julie Teresa Shapiro, Richard A. Stanton Jr., Robert A. McCleery, Ara Monadjem
Abstract: Behavior and personality play a crucial role in the evolution and ecology of animal species. We have limited knowledge of bat personality traits, partially due to the time, equipment, and facilities needed to measure them. To help fill this gap, we developed a scale for quantifying aggressiveness in bats that can be used during ordinary fieldwork and handling by researchers. This scale is based on observations of the following ecologically relevant and easily observed behaviors in wild-captured bats during routine handling: amount and intensity of physical struggling, teethbaring, and biting. We then applied this scale to 35 wild-caught individual bats belonging to three different species or species groups (Chaerephon pumilus, n=29; Scotophilus dinganii, n=3; and pipistrelloid bats, n=3) and measured agreement between observers using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). We found that agreement between observers was good to excellent. This scale of aggressiveness provides an important, practical tool for researchers to reliably quantify this personality trait in wild bats that requires no additional equipment and minimal additional handling time. Collecting data on aggressive behavior during handling has the potential to increase our understanding of both intra- and interspecific variation in aggressiveness in bats, as well as the influence of this trait on many aspects of bat ecology. Finally, collecting data using this scale can facilitate comparisons between studies and promote research at broader spatial and temporal scales than commonly used in behavioral ecology studies.
Opportunistic predation events of bats entangled in mist nets by margay Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821) in northwest Honduras: recommendations to avoid preventable casualties
Zeltia López Gallego, Pamela Medina-van Berkum, Thomas Edward Martin
Abstract: Predation of entangled bats captured in mist-nets is common but infrequently documented. As such, this welfare issue is often not considered when mist-netting surveys are being designed. Margays (Leopardus wiedii) are small neotropical cats that are known to have a varied diet and exhibit opportunistic hunting behaviour. Despite bats not having been frequently reported as a prey item for margays, studies on this felid’s feeding ecology remain scarce. We discuss the potential for margays to feed on bats when they become entangled in mist nets, providing two examples from Cusuco National Park, Honduras. In light of this, we provide recommendations as to how such opportunistic predation events can be mitigated in future surveys.